In the Ruby world, there was a popular gem for queueing jobs: resque. With one call to a ruby method, you can put a job in redis. And a daemon, called a worker, can take a job from redis, process it, and then go to the next job.
It works well, but when you want to scale and process more than one job in parallel, you have to launch several worker processes, and it can take a lot of memory. So, Mike Perham wrote a new gem: Sidekiq. It does the same thing than resque, but it enables to perform multiple jobs inside a process by using threads. And threads take a lot less memory than processes.
Sidekiq became more popular than resque, and it is well summed up by its headline:
What if 1 Sidekiq process could do the work of 20 Resque processes?
But, is it true? Well, it depends. For most tasks, like sending mails or fetching things from internet, it works really nice.
In some cases, like CPU-intensive tasks, it’s more complicated. The official Ruby interpreter (MRI) has something called the Global Interpreter Lock (GIL). Its role is to avoid that code from one thread can mess another thread. For that, when a thread wants to execute Ruby code, it has to first take the GIL. And after some time, it will release the GIL, so that another thread can take it and execute other Ruby code: it’s cooperative scheduling. There are a few exceptions to this rule: waiting the response from a database or an HTTP connection can be made by a threading that doesn’t have the GIL.
So, what to do when you are in one those cases?
First, you can try another interpreter: JRuby, for example, has no GIL and can run several threads over all your cores. JRuby is also said to be a bit faster than MRI, but it varies a lot from one use case to another. YMMV.
Last week, I had a sidekiq instance running with MRI that take 100% of CPU, ie it used only one core from the 8 there. So, i tried JRuby (and it wasn’t painless because of some incompatible gems). Yeah, my sidekiq instance running with JRuby can use all the 8 cores. But it was still processing jobs 30% slower than MRI… So, I’m keeping MRI and I will use the same strategy that resque: running several processes. With multiple sidekiq instance, it’s possible to use more than one core, even on MRI.